Emerald is the rich green variety of the Beryl family, coloured by chromium and or vanadium. The gem of Royalty and romance Emerald is the birthstone for May, the astrological sign for Cancer and the 20th and 35th anniversary gem. Emerald comes in various shades from light to deep green, it is one of the few gems where visible inclusions are acceptable as clean Emeralds are very rare.
Emerald has a hardness of 7.5 – 8 on Moh’s scale but should be treated with care as it can be brittle due to its inclusions. Fine quality Emeralds are mined in Zambia, Colombia, Brazil, Zimbabwe and India. Look for a bright attractive gem and do not be too concerned with the origin as this does not determine the quality of the gem. Emeralds specific gravity is 2.67-2.76 and refractive index 1.585-1.600 doubly refractive. Synthetic Emeralds are manufactured using the flux growth and hydrothermal processes. There are many Emerald simulants including crackled Quartz, soude Emerald.